#APIs in the Travel Industry

What is an API?

This is one of the issues we have been dealing with, since the first day of this blog. I started uploading articles and opinions on that, as well as tutorials. Dealing with this question again doesn’t feel like repeating myself, but more like I want to revisit it with a fresh approach.

Most of the web services that are being used these days have an API. As much as this word has become common in the field of information technology a lot of people with no technical background have little to no knowledge of what an API actually is. API stands for Application Program Interface and it is a set or collection of standards, routines, and protocols which help in accessing any software application that is web-based. APIs basically govern the communication between two applications or software. Explained simply, APIs can be considered as doors or windows that allow different data messages to go in or out of different web-based services or applications. The rules of these APIs allow them to control the flow of information and communication is completely governed and controlled. API doors will only be open to the software or applications that have the keys to the lock on the door. One thing that must be clarified over here is that an API does not interact with the user in any way. It is just an application to application interaction tool. The user is neither aware of this communication nor can they intervene with it.

APIs in Online Travel Industry:

The online travel agency in the world is a giant and complex web of several channels, networks, and applications working together simultaneously. The communication between these channels and applications is of paramount importance and the entire online travel industry depends on it. The main reason why any traveling company develops an API is that the application of the company is able to interact with other travel companies and suppliers such as hotels and airlines. Both applications are able to send and receive dynamic information to each other and create a system of communication between them. The information that is usually transferred via APIs are the prices and availability of different travel related product such as airline tickets and availability of rooms. Different suppliers of products in the field of traveling such as hotels and airlines also use API to make sure that their products are being viewed by a large audience.

The importance of APIs in the online traveling industry can be understood by its widespread usage. The whole industry is based on a complex and huge system of APIs that connect different applications and websites and make sure that correct information is always available for the users. Different entities in the traveling industry such as distribution system, traction hubs, reservation systems, merchandising platforms etc. are all connected with each other in a systematic manner. The main aim of this interconnectivity is to make sure that the link between supply and demand is always in the most effective and efficient form. This system is very complex mainly because of the fact that the users on different traveling websites are always expecting fast and accurate results in terms of availability and price. Most of the traveling websites are now also supporting several other facilities for their users such as car rentals, parking spots, local event bookings, tours etc. This adds to the burden of the system and new APIs are to be defined to make sure that the application or system is up to date according to these additional factors as well.

If we look at the overall online traveling industry a lot of information is always being sent and received between various different software and websites. Most of this information is in the API call, no matter if the response is in XML, JSON or YAML. APIs make sure that the transfer of this information is done in the correct and most effective way to make sure that the system is running correctly and no wrong information is being conveyed to the users. Following are some of the major travel industry related APIs.



TripAdvisor proudly calls themselves as the “world’s largest travel site”. They have more than 200 million customer reviews and opinions about different travel-related products such as restaurants, hotels, and airlines. The website of the company is the main thing that has attracted so many customers towards it. The website also gives developers the information about the APIs that the company is using. The developers who are eager to build their own travel-related applications can use The TripAdvisor Content API for this purpose. One of the best things about their API is that it even provides the information about the destination of the data that is being transferred to it. TripAdvisor also offers other APIs that can be used for B2B connectivity. The company is constantly at work to farther improve their system and make sure that their customers are always satisfied when they leave the website.

XML Travelgate:

XML Travelgate is a company that performs XML integrations for various travel-related purposes. The main aim of the company is to make sure that those API services are provided to different travel-related programs based on the three basic principles of cost saving, high service level, and extensive product catalog. The company provides their customers with a market leading technology to make sure that they become successful in the field of the online travel industry. The experts that are working for XML Travelgate make sure that the clients they are working for are able to focus more on the actual business than on the technology that is being used to run it. With dozens of highly satisfied clients from all over the world, this is one of the best companies doing XML integrations in the field of the online travel industry.


Sabre is another big name in the online travel and tourism industry. With clients ranging from airlines to car rental companies and hotels to travel agencies, Sabre has the ability to provide with just the right type of traveling solution for your company. Sabre Dev Studio provides developers with a nice and organized platform on which they can easily design and develop any travel related website or web application. Sabre also provides a number of APIs to their clients and their APIs can be used to feature their different traveling related platforms in different new and already existing applications or websites.

Concluding Thoughts

We are reaching the end of our journey into the Travel API Industry review. It remains in this section to summarize some of the key takeaways from the article in order to reinforce the main concepts. In this article, I did not even begin to scratch the industry, and you can definitely find more in the awesome stack network by Kin Lane, who needs no introduction. The idea behind such articles is that we can discuss our thoughts and our incentives in the business even though we may are not experts in that particular domain.

It is obvious that the Travel Industry has greatly been benefited by the new technology of sharing data through APIs. It has scaled the business to a whole new level of experience for the end users. No matter if you are Booking.com or just a small house that gets rent for Airbnb. You are still part of the ecosystem and APIs is where your clients will look for before eventually reach you out.


The Versions of the #Web

From the birth of commercial Internet to what it is today, it hasn’t been so long of a journey. Evolution was hampered and slow in the beginning but today, change is happening rapidly and at a fast pace. The future we were once discussing is no longer a concept, but close to being a practical reality. Let’s take a look at the journey of the web, the advancements in technologies that enable it and the evolutions of the web itself into what it is today and what it will be in the future.

The Tech Side of Things

In this section, I chose to discuss changes and improvements in HTTP and HTML over the years and how these changes affected the Internet we use today.


One of the most widely adopted application protocols on the Internet, the HTTP was designed in the early 90s. The first version, the unofficially labeled 0.9 was a very simple prototype built by Tim Berners Lee. The telnet friendly protocol consisted of a single GET method line with the path of the document and no headers or metadata.

HTTP 1.0

With the emergence and quick growth of consumer-oriented public internet infrastructure came the HTTP 1.0. Some of the key protocol changes from the prototype version were:

  • The request may consist of multiple newlines separated header fields.
  • The response object is prefixed with a response status line.
  • Response object has its own set of newline separated header fields.
  • The response object is not limited to hypertext.
  • The connection between server and client is closed after every request.

With HTTP 1.0, not just hypertext but the response object could be of any type. However, the hypertext part of the name of the protocol stayed. Almost every web server today can and will function in HTTP 1.0.

HTTP 1.1

The first official HTTP 1.1 standard was defined in 1997. It resolved a lot of protocol ambiguities found in earlier versions of the application protocol. It included optimizations that were performance critical, things like keepalive connections and transfer encodings. It allowed for an existing TCP to be used for multiple requests to the same host and deliver a much faster end user experience. To terminate the unending connection required the sending of an explicit close token to the server via the connection header.

HTTP 1.2

In the first major update since 1999 came the 1.2. It contained stronger and improved support for hierarchies and also provided better support for text menu interfaces. The menu interfaces helped HTTP be better suited for mobile clients. Systems supporting HTTP 1.2 consist of hierarchical hyperlink-able menus, the choice and titles of which are controlled by the administrator of the server.

HTTP 2.0

With the rise in devices and use of the Internet, HTTP 1.1 began to hamper performance and demands for an update increased that could decrease latency and keep up with the increasing needs. In 2015 therefore, came HTTP 2.0. It was standardized and supported by most major browsers by the end of the year. It made no changes to how existing applications work but provided new features to be taken advantage of for better speeds. It offers significant performance improvements and upgrades to speed.


Hypertext Markup Language is the markup language that enables the creation of web pages and web applications. Along with CSS and JavaScript, it is the foundation for the World Wide Web. The first two versions were of the language were very limiting, yet still, HTML 2.0 was the standard for website design until January 1997.

HTML 3.0

More people started to get into HTML, it was gaining popularity and people were demanding new features. Thus, around this time, Netscape, the leading browser in the market introduced proprietary tags and attributes into their browser to appease the cries of HTML authors. Being proprietary meant that a page using these tags looked bad on another browser.

HTML 3.0 was developed therefore with far greater capabilities and features. However, it failed as a result of browsers not being slow at incorporating all the features and thus abandoned most. In 1994, the W3C standardized the language to enable its development in the right direction. This first standardized version was toned down to contain fewer features, making its adoption easier. It came to be known as the version 3.2 and is supported by almost all browsers today.

HTML 4.0

HTML 4.0 was developed and designed to include the features that had been dropped in the move to the 3.2 version from the failed 3.0. It contained support for HTML’s new supporting presentational language, CSS. HTML 4.0 became the official standard in 1998 and was incorporated quickly by Microsoft into their latest browser. After revisions and corrections in the documentation, the final version came to be known as 4.0.1.


HTML 5 is the current and latest version of HTML. It contains new elements, attributes, and behaviors, as well as a large set of technologies that allow for the building of diverse and powerful and websites and web applications, that are also mobile friendly. Some of the offered technologies of HTML 5 include:

  • Semantics: allowing you to describe more precisely what your content is.
  • Connectivity: allowing you to communicate with the server in new and innovative ways.
  • Offline and storage: allowing web pages to store data on the client-side locally and operate offline more efficiently.
  • Multimedia: making video and audio first-class citizens in the Open Web.
  • 2D/3D graphics and effects: allowing a much more diverse range of presentation options.
  • Performance and integration: providing greater speed optimization and better usage of computer hardware.
  • Device access: allowing for the usage of various input and output devices.
  • Styling: letting authors write more sophisticated themes

The Less Tech Side of Things

On the less technical side of things and looking at evolution from the user’s end, the Internet has done more than evolved to show images and load web pages faster. It is no longer what it was ten years ago, and it won’t be what it is today ten, or even five years from now as well.

Web 1.0

Tim Berners Lee describes Web 1.0, the Internet before 1999, as the read-only version of the Internet. It was the version of the web that consisted entirely of web pages connected to each other through hyperlinks. The time, when there were only a lot of static dotcom websites that did not provide any form of interactive content. Web 1.0 was very different from the Internet that we’re used to today. The technology was developing back then; the Internet was in its first stage. There were millions of websites in which there was no active communication or information flow from the information reader to the information producer.

Web 2.0

The 1.0 was lacking in user interaction and this led to the development of Web 2.0. It can be called the read-write era of the web as it enabled information flow from the user end as well. Web 2.0 emphasizes on user-generated content, usability even by non-experts, and interoperability, meaning that websites can work equally well across multiple devices and platforms. It is also called the social web as it empowered the common user with blogs, social media, and video streaming. Any user can not only interact with content but generate their own content as well. Thus, with web 2.0, users are more involved with the information that is available to them. Popular and widespread developments of Web 2.0 are Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube, etc.

Web 3.0

The web 3.0 is the newest version of the web that you might not be fully aware of as it not as noticeable a change as from the version 1.0 to the version 2.0. The web 3.0, also known as semantic web, combines semantic markup and web services to enable content to be readable by machines. It provides context to information and develops interactions between machines and databases. A machine will search from one database to the next as they will be sharing information on a certain topic rather than being connected. It is still in development and improving every day. The web 3.0 learns our habit and preferences to provide only the most relevant and useful information. It also involves the emergence of 3D virtual and inter-spatial internet. The use of wearable devices to access places virtually through the Internet and much more.

Web 4.0

Although web 4.0 isn’t entirely here yet, it is no longer just a concept either. It will be the open, fully linked, and intelligent web, driven by the information collected through all the connected devices in our use. As a result, content will be more personalized and relevant than ever. An important part of web 4.0 is the Internet of Things. With your car, air conditioner, watch, mobile phone, work and home computer, and even the refrigerator connected and sharing information, the web will be more informed and more connected than ever for each individual. It will be like the always-on version of the Internet, tapped into our lives, learning, and responding. Constantly adding value to even the smallest of our tasks with relevant and useful information and services.

#BigData innovation through #CloudComputing:


With the digitalization of almost everything in this world, the amount of data is increasing at an exponential rate. The IT experts soon realized that analysis of this data is not possible with the traditional data analysis tools. Considering this ever-expanding volume of useful data that could be used in a number of ways the IT experts came up with many solutions amongst which the two initiatives are amongst the top. These two are big data and cloud computing.

Big data analysis offers the promise of providing valuable insights of the data that can create competitive advantage, spark new innovations, and drive increased revenues. By carefully analyzing the data we can predict different things about the company. Cloud computing acts as a delivery model for IT services of any company and has the potential to enhance business agility and productivity while enabling greater efficiencies and reducing costs significantly. By storing the data on cloud servers instead of on site IT department you can not only save money but also make sure that your data is safe and secure as the security of these cloud servers is usually in the hands of top IT security companies.

Both technologies continue to thrive. Organizations are now moving beyond questions of what and how to store big data to addressing how to derive meaningful analytics that responds to real business needs. As cloud computing continues to mature, a growing number of enterprises are building efficient cloud environments, and cloud providers continue to expand services and service offerings.

Characteristics and Categories:

Databases for big data:

One of the most important and crucial task that any company has to do is to choose the correct data base for their big data. As the data is increasing more and more companies have emerged to provide data bases for this big. The databases that are designed to handle big data are usually referred to as NoSQL systems and they do not depend on SQL in contrast to the traditional SQL based data systems. The main working principle of all these companies is, however, the same that is to provide an efficient and effective storage to companies and give them ways to extract useful information from their big data. These companies truly help them to build and expand their business by giving them useful data analytics. The most reputed companies among hundreds of others are Cassandra, dynamob, and AWS. These companies not only give you the best data storage options they also make sure that your data is safe and secure and provide you with useful analytics about your data.

Machine Learning in the Cloud:

One of the most interesting features of cloud computing and big data analysis is the machine learning and its integration with AI. The machine learning cloud services make it easier to build sophisticated and large-scale models that can really increase the efficiency and enhance the overall data management of your company’s data. By injecting AI into your business, you can learn truly amazing things about the data analytics.

IoT platforms:

Internet of Things or IoT is also an interesting aspect of big data and cloud computing. Big data and IoT are essentially two sides of the same coin. Big data is more about data whereas IoT is more concerned with the flow of this data and connectivity of different data generating devices. IoT has created a big data flux that must be analyzed in order to get useful analytics from it.

Computation Engines:

Big data is not just about collecting and storing a large amount of data. This data is of no use to us until it gives us useful information and analytics. These computational engines provide excellent scalability to make your data storage more efficient. These engines use parallel and distributed algorithms to analyze the data. Map reduce is one of the best computations engines in the market at the moment.

Big Data on AWS:

Amazon’s AWS provides you one of the most complete and best big data platforms in the world. It provides you a wide variety of options and different services which can help you with your big data needs. With AWS, you get fast and flexible IT solutions and that too at a low cost. It has the ability to process and analyze any type of data regardless of the volume, velocity, and variety of data. The best thing about AWS is that it offers you more than 50 services and hundreds of features are added in these services every year constantly increasing the efficacy of the system. Two of the most famous services offered by AWS is redshift and kinesis.

AWS Redshift:

Amazon Redshift is a fast, efficient and fully managed data warehouse that makes it extremely simple and cost-effective to analyze all your data using standard SQL and your existing Business Intelligence (BI) tools. By allowing you to run complex analytic queries against petabytes of structured data and using sophisticated query optimization on high-performance local disks most results come back in seconds. It is also extremely cost efficient where you can start from as small as $0.25 per hour with no commitments and then gradually increase to petabytes of data for $1,000 per terabyte per year.

The service also includes Redshift Spectrum, which allows you to directly run SQL queries against exabytes of unstructured big data in Amazon S3. You don’t need to load or transform the data, and you can use open data formats which may include CSV, TSV, Parquet, Sequence, and RCFile. The best thing is that Redshift Spectrum automatically scales query and computes capacity based on the data being retrieved, so queries against Amazon S3 run fast and do not depend on data set size.

AWS Kinesis:

Amazon Kinesis Analytics is another great service by Amazon and is one of the easiest ways to process streaming data in real time with standard SQL. The best thing about this service is that you don’t have to learn any new programming languages or processing frameworks. This service allows you to query streaming data or build entire streaming applications using SQL. This makes sure that you can gain actionable insights and respond to your business and more importantly customer needs promptly.

Amazon Kinesis Analytics is a complete service that takes care of everything required to run your queries continuously and the best part is that it scales automatically to match the volume and throughput rate of your incoming data. With Amazon Kinesis Analytics, you only pay for the resources your queries consume which makes it extremely budget friendly and cost efficient. There is no minimum fee or setup cost.



Just an(other) brief intro to the world of #BlockChain

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Build Your Own Udemy

Today we all are living in technological driven world where online learning has become an important and totally worthwhile way of learning on-the-go. Now our future of higher education lies in the hand of the online learning system. Nowadays college and university students find themselves burdened with Jobs and family commitments and having an option of studying at their own time has become a critically important part of their life, as its very convenient and less expensive for most of the students moreover, You can work on any course just about anywhere you have computer access.

Because of the expanding trend of online learning platforms like Udemy, khan academy, now the question arises is that how can we make our own online learning platform, what are the core technologies involved in developing such systems, the answer to that is Application programming interface (APIs). APIs are sets of instructions or requirements that govern how one application can communicate with another.

The function of an API is usually fairly straightforward and simple, the process of choosing which type of API to build, understanding why that type of API is appropriate for your application, and then designing it to work effectively is the key to giving your API a fairly long life and making sure that it’s used by developers.

There are many types of APIs available. For example, you may have heard of Java APIs or interfaces within different classes that let objects interact with each other in the Java programming language. Along with program-centric APIs, we also have Web APIs like the Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP), Remote Procedure Call (RPC), and the most popular at least in name, Representational State Transfer (REST).

There are more than one alternatives

If you’re looking for building your own platform for e-learning like Udemy, it’s important to decide which type of method you have in mind for the delivering lectures of courses that are offered, it can be audio, video or simple text. Video lectures are more in trend these days so now it’s important to know  how to make your own live streaming videos for course lectures, there are a lot of APIs that can offer to make an application that is user friendly and fast but for specific live video streaming Castasy is a good way of doing so as it’s a  cost efficient solution that has arrived in the form of a software  This new live streaming software comes with compatible versions for both iOS and Android devices and also comes in a desktop version. The software basically allows the user to have an application and website that could stream live videos with their own live streaming software. The user is capable of allowing access or denying access to any follower. Each video gets a separate URL and posting that specific URL in their browser, users can view the video at their desktops with the website version of that software. With different URLs users have the facility to view a number of videos available in the website version of the software The live streaming software also withholds a chat feature facilitating viewers to chat on videos as they are streamed so they can discuss relevant topics related to that video it’s a very good feature for e-academies as it helps the students to discuss different queries through chat.

Now if we talk about the most popular, known and very efficient API developer Citrix, Gotowebinar, and Udemy usually comes into the person’s mind now let’s look at them one by one and in detail.

What Citrix basically do is that these applications are streamed from a centralized specific location into an isolated environment where they are executed on different target devices. Application configuration, settings, and relevant files are copied to the client device. When you start the session virtualization, applications are delivered from hosting servers in the data center with the help of application streaming. The user is then connected to the server to which that specific application was delivered. The application is then executed on the server, and the server power is maximized. While the server receives mouse clicks and random keyboard strokes, it sends all the screen updates to the end user device.

GoToWebinar is a purpose-built for do-it-yourself Webinars, making it easy for multinational organizations to deliver their message to thousands of people at the same time, eliminating costly travel or expensive marketing promotions. Innovative in-session features and reports help businesses evaluate the success of their Webinars and to judge whether it was successful or not .it’s actually a Citrix production but it’s usually considered as a different API.

If we look at Udemy as an API we see that Depending on our intended use case, we may be interested in creating our own courses, basically our own platforms for e-learning, it helps us in developing that certain stage, we can consume premium courses, or develop our own through Udemy it’s an easy way to provide services online and earn a little bit of fortune.

API’s pricing benefits Availability
Gotowebinar For starters, it costs $89.00 and can provide services for up to 100 participants

For Pro it costs

$199.00/mo and can entertain up to

500 Participants

For plus it costs $429.00 and can provide services for

2000 Participants

·      Reliable

·      Ease of use

·      Cost efficient

·      Saves time and money that is otherwise consumed on marketing

Easily available in the US and outside of US
Citrix It ranges between 80$ to 500$ ·      standardized, common setup.

·      compress the data

·      it’ll encrypt the data for security

·      the performance is faster

·      centralized management

Easily available all around the globe
Udemy ·        list prices of Udemy range between $20 – $200.

·       Larger discounts are offered.

·       We can run promotions if different courses in 10 to 15$



  • The ability to create your own courses
  • The easiest opportunity to centralize your training materials
  • Easy Management of users and courses


Available all around the world


It is not as hard as you may think

Every API technologies have a lot of benefits and mostly are available all around the globe if we want to build our own e-learning platform it’s easier to utilize these APIs rather than developing our own, as its cost efficient and gives us all the desirable features whether it’s online streaming of lectures or publicity of a certain seminar they provide us with every feature necessary to develop our own Udemy .


Cloud Computing is every #Startup’s #CTO best friend

The needs of a startup:

Chief technology officers play a major role in managing the technical aspects of a company, especially for startups. The requirements of a company in the early stages differ considerably from its requirements in the later stage. For most startups, the initial period is turbulent; the market waters harsh and finding loyal partnerships cumbersome. For CTOs, this period can be exceedingly stressful, they have to manage and ensure the entire operation of the company runs smoothly at every point. As the world advances into digital zones, the burden on CTOs has increased. Initially, the company may hire a lot of IT professionals to take care of technology needs, however, as time goes on, these professionals would be cut down and some advance and take on more responsibility. The later stages of a startup are more secure and stable, by this point CTOs already have their strategy in motion, they have hired professions to handle technology work and their major role lies in super vision. However, during the middle region, CTOs can face numerous challenges. From finding the right balance in the company, managing resources, storing data, keeping the company wired, operational and connected to the market, can be a hurdle. However, diligent CTOs manage the company needs, keeping their eye on the end price.

The role of a CTO

Chief Technology officers are required to maintain the smooth functionality of technology, while reducing expenses of the company. Micro-level events are exceptionally useful for CTOs and they are always on the look at for changes that might occur at this level. For example, ways in which digital technology can be improved. Since data is the basic tool of most companies, CTOs often look for ways to improve high data throughput. The technology market and all its innovations are always under the radar of Chief technology officers. These people do not invest impulsively; rather make calculated decisions to ensure that every investment results in incremental growth and money savings for the company. CTOs look at market trends and environments, the evolutions that take place and the competition they face in the market. Moreover, these officers pay diligent attention to customer preferences and buying habits. These two aspects show the company how to market products so they become more appealing to customers. These customer needs are evaluated on a five year basis, as customer preferences change only slightly during this time frame. However, if certain technological advances make big waves in the market environment, then CTO’s are required to change their strategies accordingly.  While these are the basic requirements and credentials of CTO’s, hiring equally qualified tech experts also falls under their domain. CTO’s are also required to manage their team, and ensure every department and their technology needs are fulfilled, and run smoothly at all times.



What is Cloud Computing?

Cloud computing or internet based computing is on demand access to a number of configurable computer resources. These resources can include computer networks, data, storage, servers, applications and other services. The services can be dispatched with minimum management, and are normally safer, and more reliable for data needs. Cloud storage and computing give customers and companies the platform to safely store their data, privately and even remotely. In some cases outsourced companies may be involved in providing the services, however, other cloud based computing are very personalized.

Cloud computing and services can really reduce the cost of the technology infrastructure of a company. For startup companies, the costs are already high and initial revenue low, hence for such companies, cloud computing provides and easy, accessible and cheap option, as they do not need to buy separate servers. By taking care of the IT needs of organizations, it gives companies the leverage to focus on central issues and core business goals. Moreover, it allows CTOs to manage the technology needs faster, more professionally, and in a systematic manner. When such professionals have to take care of big data and services on a daily basis, they rarely find the time to focus on more important issues at hand, managing the technology resources. Moreover, since these servers are outsourced, maintenance costs are negligible for the company. In addition, it also reduces the personnel need of a company, and hence cuts costs considerably.

While cloud computing can offer a range of benefits to companies, there are some draw backs as well. Public cloud computing options are very risky, and in the past, there have been countless breaches that have resulted in loss of personal information from companies. This information can include sensitive credit card information, employee details or any company data. Usually hackers release such information on social media outlets, and this can cause the public image of a company to be in jeopardy. There have been numerous documented cases of theft and cyber hacking on public cloud computing, however, it is uncommon in Private cloud computing. None the less, the risks associated are very high, and due to the remote nature of the vice, the criminal can be very hard to track down.

Cloud Computing for CTOs: Design solutions in Cloud

Cloud Computing can offer a lot to companies, especially CTOs. Not only are there many cost saving benefits of employing such a service, but, most technology aspects of the company get assisted by the service. Cloud computing solutions are cheaper for companies, and by outsourcing data and IT needs, CTOs can focus on what truly matters, designing solutions to run the company seamlessly. The data becomes much easier to manage for officers, becomes more transparent and storage issues rarely arise.

Amazon’s CTO, Werner Vogel has already spoken about the benefits he has reaped from cloud computing in his company. Vogel advocated the services in a conference, stating, “the cloud has nothing to do with technology, the cloud is defined by all its benefits”.

While apps and gadgets can take care of data storage needs, for companies and startups the cost of download could be great, by investing in cloud services, this downtime can be prevented.  According to Vogel, if Cloud services lower their costs and make tackle privacy issues, companies would advance at an alarming rate.





Cultural Heritage #APIs: What are they, why we need them


Currently, it is of very great significance for the cultural heritage scholars to highly focus on the area of application programming interface (APIs). Generally, APIs are considered to be in very simple terms, code libraries that are assembled by various companies offering web service with a major objective of enabling third-party applications to be able to link up and make communications with web service platforms[1]. To define cultural heritage APIs, it refers to an expression of different ways of living that are normally developed by a community, and then passed from one generation to the other comprising of practices, customs, values places, and artistic expression achieved through the help of technology.

Usually, API is invisible to the human eyes regardless of the fact that APIs are interfaces that are linked to facilitate computer-to-computer communication. Inside the domain of cultural heritage, there is a very implausible potential create tools that can help in revolutionizing both the presentations of different collections and the way in which people happen to experience and interact with cultural heritage. Cultural heritage APIs are of very great significance giving the reason as to why we need them. Taking, for example, it is through cultural heritage APIs that we are able to discover the Europe’s rich cultural heritage that can be found in the museums, libraries, galleries, cultural oriented institutions, and different archives in the whole content of Europe. In addition, it is through the digitization efforts that enables people from different parts of the world to get to know about this heritage through different online platforms[2]. This simply means that cultural heritage APIs helps in the preservation of the important cultural materials.

Museum REST APIs

In application program interfaces, REST is used as the type of architecture style that is meant for the design of networked application whereby there is a use of simple HTTP in the making of calls between machines. There are different categories of museums APIs whereby they are all designed by implementing REST so that they can provide the expected purpose when it comes to the cultural heritage. These categories comprise of arts, education, and location. In the category of arts, museums APIs aim at integrating the entire museum’s collection into an application hence allowing different users to have access to data concerning objects, people, exhibitions, galleries, and publications. Under the education category, museums APIs are designed as a REST-ful interface depending to a particular museum’s collections so that all the items searched can be returned in the database while they are already paginated in either JSON or SML format.

Availability of Museums REST APIs

Looking at the availability of museums REST APIs, in most cases, it involves the use of Gerrit code review which normally comes with a REST-like API that is always available over the HTTP. In this case, the API happens to be very suitable when it comes to the automated tools to build upon and also supporting a number of ad-hoc scripting uses cases. It is through the construction of the API protocols as well as the documentation that different web service provider companies enable people to have access to the data in regard to cultural heritage they may want to access.

The Necessity of Museum APIs

There are a number of significances linked to the museum APIs in regard to the cultural heritage. To start with, use of Artsy API, it helps in providing access to images of a particular historic artwork as well as related information when it comes to artsy being one of the category of museum APIs meant for educational and some other non-commercial purposes[3]. The other significance is that it helps in providing access to positions, luminosity, color, and some other data to people in different locations of the world when it comes to the exoplanets and constellations. Allowing an individual to search a diverse body of online primary resources that relates to written and early printed culture in a particular state, taking for example of the Britain culture at the period of 1000-1500, is the other necessity of museum APIs lying under manuscripts online API. The other significance is on the connected histories API whereby it brings together a range of digital resources when it comes to the early modern as well as the 19th century Britain with a single federal search that normally enables a highly modernized searching of names, places, and dates, connect, and shares resources with a private workspace. Usually, the connected histories APIs allow different users to connect programmatically when it comes to the search engine through the use of GET parameters whereby results can be retrieved in an XML format[4].

Future Thoughts of Museum REST APIs

The future thoughts of the museum APIs involves determining where next to open cultural data in museums[5]. It is evident that recently, museums have increasingly been integrating the global movement when it comes to the open data through initiating of their databases, images sharing as well as releasing of their knowledge. The other future thoughts involve determining on how to come up with a way that can be used to in open data so that there can be engaging of more people and more diverse individuals taking, for example, of the United Kingdom heritage and culture.

Cloud Technologies Used by Museums

Cloud technology or computing can be defined as a natural progression when it comes to the utility of computing. Normally, early computers would require a number of users to share a single console which has currently come to an end as the advent of personal computing brought about the convenience into our homes[6]. The Internet has completely changed the way in which people link up to information and each other. Museums are known to provide access to their different collections and programs through the hosting of websites as well as the applications for the public use.

Museums make use of software as a service (SaaS) and Platform as a service (PaaS) as its main types of cloud computing[7]. For the PaaS system, they normally enable access when it comes to the virtual hardware devices that always allow the software toolsets that can be most appropriately used. SaaS systems normally require users to deploy software as per a particular interface with a major objective of hosting applications[8].

Through providing of API only access, the implementation of SaaS can have the capability of providing features that can help developers to build upon considering the aspect of scalability as the most significant one. Consenting the cloud to take control of where the data gets to be stored and where the applications happen to be stored through a SaaS system helps in removing a significant amount of workload as well as the complexity of the developer. For the PaaS, museums consider using it due to its benefit of ease in moving applications from one servicer provider to the other. Museums considered there switching to the cloud computing technology due to these operational advantages linked to the cloud computing technology and environmental effects through the use of services in the cloud[9].

When it comes to the data exposed by the cloud technologies used by the museum’s work, they normally get to be used by some other museums in the worldwide basis so that they can be able to advance their museums work with a major objective of preserving the cultural heritage in different parts of the world.

REST APIs are considered to be very significant and useful due to the fact that they do allow different users to have access to data portals when it comes to different museums natural history with an objective of retrieving the collection and research datasets for different uses in software or applications. Talking, for instance, of the London natural history museums, the datasets get returned in JSON whereby it holds over 2 million specimen records that are from the museum’s zoology, botany, and entomology collections.




Armbrust, Michael, Armando Fox, Rean Griffith, Anthony D. Joseph, Randy H. Katz, Andrew Konwinski, Gunho Lee, David A. Patterson, Ariel Rabkin, Ion Stoica, and Matei Zaharia. Above the Clouds: A Berkeley View of Cloud Computing. Berkeley, CA: Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California at Berkeley, 2009. Accessed September 6, 2016. https://www2.eecs.berkeley.edu/Pubs/TechRpts/2009/EECS-2009-28.pdf

Fernando, Niroshinie, Seng W. Loke, and Wenny Rahayu. “Mobile cloud computing: A survey.” Future Generation Computer Systems 29, no. 1 (2013): 84-106.

Isaksen, Leif. Pandora’s Box: the Future of Cultural Heritage on the World Wide Web. (2009): 110-130. Accessed September 6, 2016. https://leifuss.files.wordpress.com/2008/08/pandorasbox.pdf

Johnson, Larry, Samantha Adams Becker, Victoria Estrada, and Alex Freeman. The NMC Horizon Report: 2015 Museum Edition. Austin, TX: The New Media Consoritum, (2015):190-205.

Rosenthal, Sara, Alan Ritter, Preslav Nakov, and Veselin Stoyanov. “Semeval-2014 Task 9: Sentiment Analysis in Twitter.” In Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation, 73-80. Dublin, Ireland: SemEval, 2014.

Sucan, Ioan A., Mark Moll, and Lydia E. Kavraki. “The Open Motion Planning Library.” IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine 19, no. 4 (2012): 72-82.



[1]Michael Armbrust, Armando Fox, Rean Griffith, Anthony D. Joseph, Randy H. Katz, Andrew Konwinski, Gunho Lee, David A. Patterson, Ariel Rabkin, Ion Stoica, and Matei Zaharia. Above the Clouds: A Berkeley View of Cloud Computing. (Berkeley, CA: Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California at Berkeley, 2009), 530.

[2] Leif Isaksen. Pandora’s Box: the Future of Cultural Heritage on the World Wide Web. (2009), 120.

[3] Sara Rosenthal, Alan Ritter, Preslav Nakov, and Veselin Stoyanov. “Semeval-2014 Task 9: Sentiment Analysis in Twitter.” In Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (Dublin, Ireland: SemEval, 2014), 73-80.

[4] Ioan A. Sucan, Mark Moll, and Lydia E. Kavraki. “The Open Motion Planning Library.” IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine 19, no. 4 (2012): 72-82.

[5] Larry Johnson, Samantha Adams Becker, Victoria Estrada, and Alex Freeman. The NMC Horizon Report: 2015 Museum Edition. (Austin, TX: The New Media Consoritum, 2015),192.

[6] Ibid., 200.

[7] Niroshinie Fernando, Seng W. Loke, and Wenny Rahayu. “Mobile cloud computing: A survey.” Future Generation Computer Systems 29, no. 1 (2013), 90.

[8] Ibid., 100.

[9] Ibid., 102.


Exploring Cache options for Hypermedia #APIs

Application program interface (API) is a set of protocols utilized for building software applications. This directs how the components of software interact with one another and are very useful as they make it easier to develop the program and put all the units together. More recently Hypermedia APIs have become the latest hype, scaling better and promoting decoupling and encapsulation easily along with the myriad of advantages these things bring.

REST (Representational state transfer) is a popular architectural approach to communications that currently utilized in the development of web software. REST’s lighter communication between producer and consumer makes it a well-liked system for cloud-based APIs, especially those provided by Google, Mircosoft etc. Running over the HTTP (hypertext transfer protocol, this architecture has several components, one of the most important being able to control a cache. REST APIs operate in a simple manner, by picking up a base protocol like HTTP and model the resources with a URI. You can then map actions into HTTP methods. However, hypermedia augments this procedure by simultaneous presentation of information and control hence poses as a pivotal constraint of the web and as an extension of REST.

So what is Hypermedia control?

As the digital world exceeds in complexity, more and more people want different components of a system all within a single application, to be able to easily interact with one another clearly. This cross-linguistic data exchange is what APIs have always been evolved to do, however, languages used to code individual software applications do not correspond nicely with each other.

Hypermedia that is hyperlinked can circumvent this need and can cause applications to stay interconnected and communicate easily. Hypermedia APIs is a more evolved and phenomenal way of creating APIs by using the universally used and understood hyperlinks.

This hypermedia functionality can embed links into associated resources in order to describe the action it will perform. This allows end users to carry out the actions that have been prescribed in the resource.

Current situation of web caches:

Due to the dynamic nature of web application, a lot of data is required to be stored. With every new request HTTP, caching is needed. With this caching, you cache the full output of the page requested, bypassing your application entirely on succeeding requests. While this is the current situation of web caches, it isn’t always possible for highly dynamic sites, which can only use the power of HTTP caching on fragments on these sites.

Caching with Hypermedia APIs:

Of the major issues with APIs and web-based architecture on a network is that optimum performance is acquired when the network is not in use, as this is the dawdling part of any application. Hypermedia APIs however, allow a greater caching of data on the browser cache through two ways, either a content delivery network or through a proxy on the server. This altogether reduces dependency on the network server infrastructure, hence increased speed considerably.

In addition, there is also a possibility of remote procedure call (RPC) with hypermedia APIs, where dynamic elements can be edge cached. In certain popular websites, this allows the trendy products or articles to be updated frequently along with the comments, opening a more interactive website.

One of the keys to successful Hypermedia API is its use of caching such as local caches and Etags. Moreover, in large systems cache invalidation can prove to even more costly than not caching at all. However, through careful designing of hypermedia resources, you can easily enable your system to depend on natural behaviors that are built into HTTP protocols.

Other benefits of Hypermedia APIs:

There are other benefits of Hypermedia APIs as well. These can enable applications to browse an API from the root or any resource, acting in a way that web works with hyperlinks. This needs API federation, where media APIs are interlinked with content API.

Moreover, it allows for more flexible and evolvable systems, as URIs remain persistent or unchanged, all configurations are done at the API root. If under any circumstance, the API is faulty, no damage will be suffered by the URL infrastructure and hence, this proves to be very cost effective.

In addition, Hypermedia APIs are also extensible. This means that more links and forms can be added without the fear of API breakage. These will also simply be ignored if they are not supported by the application of the client. Hence, validation and guidance of client are ensured.

Hypermedia APIs are simple and enable scalability from small to large single-page apps. They also enable standardization when API calls and made and the information if returned. The various links and forms are affordances in the hypermedia infrastructure and can be directed after the validation from the client side. While this advantage is still in research phase, it can prove to be very beneficial for certain businesses.

Another subtle advantage of hypermedia APIs over traditional APIs without hyperlinks is that in the latter you can only expose information that the client has requested, not caring what it is being utilized for. In a Hypermedia API, you are conscious of the workflow and can actively guide the client by providing links. This creates a superb communication between clients and server developers.

Limitations of hypermedia APIs:

Despite the obvious benefits, Hypermedia APIs still have certain drawbacks; however, these are just certain barriers that have to be climbed to allow for the adoption of this wonderful technology.

One of the most critical arguments against Hypermedia APIs is that the payload is higher for serialization of JSON, unlike thrift objects. However, overall if API actions are taken copiously, less data needs to be transported, so procedures like call sessions might not increase by such a high amount.

Future of Hypermedia APIs:

As systems become even more intricate, the need for universal language among diverse systems will be needed. Hypermedia, despite its limitations, will be the panacea in overcoming such communication gaps, especially in areas where Big Data and caching is concerned. Hypermedia is powerful and its full potential has yet not been discovered. It might even someday leave today’s REST and HTTP methods behind, relying solely on its ability to link through the common protocol, unorganized distributed data. How it completes this task only time will tell.


How #music-streaming site Orfium used Varnish Cache to improve page performance

This is a hosted blog post I wrote recently for section.io.

Background: Implementing Varnish Cache with section.io.

Orfium is a new music platform which combines some of the best features of existing platforms such as SoundCloud, Bandcamp and Beatport, allowing users to share their tracks, promote them and sell downloads. In addition, it promises to introduce a range of interesting new options for music makers and labels, including the payment of streaming royalties and the ability to upload DJ mixes while compensating all artists whose music is included.

Uniquely, Orfium takes an artist-driven approach to music. The platform could prove to be a strong rival to existing sites such as SoundCloud, which have come under fire in recent months for their heavy-handed approach to handling copyright infringements and their apparent focus on securing lucrative licensing deals rather than listening to the voices of their users.

Why we started using section.io to set up Varnish Cache

Orfium is a music platform that enables people to browse and listen to music. Users can signup and login so that they have a personalised experience in our platform. However, we also enable users to search for music and listen to samples or popular playlists without logging in. All public information is also optimised and available for search engines. Both of these characteristics mean that a huge amount of our traffic comes from non-authenticated sessions, which Orfium welcomes. We also have a large amount of traffic that comes from social media and blog references.

Thus, brainstorming at the office we were thinking that we could definitely optimise the performance of non-authenticated sessions, especially at specific spikes of traffic. Varnish cache seemed from the very beginning to meet our list of requirements:

  • Cache the whole http response
  • Have the ability to customise the rules of caching
  • It is a tested and scalable open source solution

The very first thing we did was to create an EC2 Varnish instance to evaluate that it works on our staging server. It passed all the tests, including the load testing ones that were the most important for us to adopt any specific technology. We were impressed with how it could perform without exploding our staging servers.

It is in our mentality as a company, “if someone already does something (well) and we need this, we pay for it”. After evaluating several Varnish solutions as a service, section.io seemed easy to configure and immediately passed all of our tests when we added our own Varnish configuration.

orfium screenshot

How section.io helped the Orfium platform

After a couple of weeks in the staging environment with section.io we decided to release our Varnish cache configuration in the production environment. The configuration was super simple, and it required only a couple of minutes to setup the new DNS settings and then update the Varnish settings.

The most impressive thing was that from Day One of this release we could see that our backend analytics “relaxed” immediately, since most of the non-authenticated traffic was routed directly through section.io and Varnish. Day after day, everything seemed to work even better, and this enabled us to start working on how we can cache chunks of information that are shared amongst users, even though every user has their complete personalised Orfium experience.

orfium dashboard

section.io’s CDN support

First thing first. Every time I am about to choose a new platform for production I value the customer support more than anything. I don’t want to ever have a production issue on Sunday morning and nobody be there to resolve this. Thus, I always check again and again that the support is there for us to resolve both simple/stupid questions as well as the more technical stuff.

I have to say, this is something like the best support I ever received. They guys even checked on my Varnish code configuration to evaluate it. Every other problem we had was resolved in less than half and hour.

Next Steps for optimizing our CDN configuration

After evaluating Varnish technology with section.io in a production environment, we feel confident that we can dive deeper into using more aspects of section.io as a platform, find new ways to decrease http responses and offer an even better experience to our users.

One important lesson that we learned from section.io is that having quality customer support is hugely beneficial to a technology company, not only because people are going to trust your service over another, but also because people will actually adopt a new technology more easily when they have someone to support them. Obviously this is not a new lesson in computer science, as such practices have been there for decades, but this is a valuable lesson for cloud service offerings that are often not all that open and helpful. Even though good customer support takes effort, it is important when dealing with web performance and security, and we were pleased that the section.io team was always able to answer our questions.


#Data as a Service: REST #APIs Transforming the Cloud era

History of Cloud Computing

Cloud computing is a kind of Internet-based computing that offers pooled computer processing resources and data to computers and other devices on demand. It is often referred to as “the cloud” delivery of on-demand computer resources, everything from applications to data centers, through the Internet, normally, on a pay-for-use basis (Armbrust et al., 2010). The term “time sharing” is the foundation of cloud computing in the 1950s; back then mainframe computers were huge occupying plenty of room and due to the cost of purchasing and sustaining mainframes, organizations could not meet the expense of buying them for each user. The solution, therefore, was “time sharing” in which multiple users shared the entrance to data and CPU time. In 1969, J.C.R Licklider established the ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network); his idea was for global interconnection and access to programs and data at any site from any place (Mohamed, 2009). This network became the basis of the internet.

In the 1970s, IBM launched an operating system known as VM which permitted admins to possess multiple virtual systems or “Virtual Machines on a single physical node (Mohamed, 2009). The VM operating system took the “time sharing” to the next level, and most of the primary function of virtualization software can be drawn to the VM operating system. The 1990s telecommunications companies began offering virtualized private network connections (Mohamed, 2009). It allowed more users to the same physical infrastructure through shared access. The change enabled traffic shift as necessary to enable better system balance and more mechanism over bandwidth usage. In the interim, PC-based system virtualisation began in solemn, and as the internet became more manageable, online virtualisation logically fell into place. Cloud computing came in around 1997. In 2002, however, Amazon created Amazon Wed Service (AWS) providing a cutting-edge system of cloud services from storage to computation (Mohamed, 2009). Amazon also introduced the Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) as a commercial Wed service which allowed companies rent computers on which they were able to run their computer applications. 2009, Google and Microsoft joined, the Google App Engine brought low-cost computing and storage services, and Microsoft trailed suit with Windows Azure (Mohamed, 2009). The Reserve field service management software passages to the cloud.


History of REST APIs

In understanding the history of REST APIs, APIs history comes first. Modern web APIs were legitimately congenital with Roy Fielding’s dissertation Architectural Styles and the design of Network-based Software Architectures in 2000 (Lane, 2012). Web APIs first seemed in the wild with the outline of Salesforce in February. Salesforce was an enterprise class web-based, sales force automation, as an “Internet as a service” with XML APIs were a fragment of Salesforce.com from the first day. On November the same year, eBay launched the eBay Application Program Interface (API) along with the eBay Developers Programs (Lane, 2012). Amazon started Amazon.com Wed Services which allowed developers incorporate Amazon.com content and structures in their websites. AWS also enabled third party sites search and display products from Amazon.com in an XML format. Amazon E-Commerce kicked off the modern Wed API movement (Lane, 2012).

Web APIs got traction when things got social. In 2004, Flickr launched their API which was attained by Yahoo later (Lane, 2012). The inauguration of RESTful API made Flickr become the imaging policy of choice for early blogging and social media movement. Users were allowed to entrench their Flickr photos easily into their blogs and social network streams. Facebook also launched their API Version 1.0 of Facebook Development Platform which enabled developers access Facebook friends, photos, events and profile info for Facebook (Lane, 2012). Twitter followed suit and introduced the Twitter API, and Google launched their Google Maps APIs. As the APIs were making social thrill across the internet, Amazon recognized the potential in RESTful APIs and launched a new web service Amazon S3 (Buyya, 2008). It delivered a simple interface that can be for storing and to reclaim any amount of data at anytime from anywhere on the internet. It offers developers access to vastly scalable, dependable, fast, and cheap data storage infrastructure, same as Amazon usages, to run its global network websites.

Necessity of REST APIs

REST is a set of principles that elaborate how Web standards like HTTP and URLs are supposed to be used. Its purpose is to convince performance scalability, simplicity, portability, visibility, modifiability, and reliability. It is just a series of guidelines and architect styles used for data transmission, and it is commonly applied to web applications. RESTful Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) are APIs that follow the REST architecture (Lozano, Galindo, & García, 2008). REST became necessary and important for minimizing the combination between clients and server mechanisms in a widespread application. In the case, a server is going to be used by various customers, and the developer has no control over, REST plays a part in managing the clients. REST is also necessary when one needs to update the server commonly without interfering in updating the customer’s software. Rest is in the world over; it is part of the web that makes it work so well

Recent Advancement in REST APIs

REST API for Atlassian application is among the recent advancement in REST APIs where Atlassian application exposes REST APIs for developers to use and access services of the Atlassian platform (Yates et al., 2014). These RESTAPIs provide an unconventional to the Java APIs utilized in the process plugins; they offer variation tolerance than in-process APIs. WordPress JSON also embraced WordPress JSON REST APIs in the future of the platform (WordPress, 2011). There is a separation between the client and server about in place and no need to be either inside WordPress front nor end admin panel for any requests to be read or executed (WordPress, 2011). The integration of the JSON REST API marks the ultimate evolution of WordPress from its humble backgrounds as a blogging solution into an entirely featured application platform, it is a lightweight data interchange format and based on a subset of JavaScript code language. The WP API allows one to take CRUD (Create, Read, Update, and Delete) actions to many various kinds of WordPress content posts, pages, media, comments, etc. The REST API gives languages instant access to the complete range of WordPress native functionality. The REST API also allows mobile developers to have the capability to treat WordPress installs like any other server. Another ability that WordPress gives is that use of the front-end of WordPress will be stringently optional (Katayama, Nakao, & Takagi, 2010). Additionally, they allow batch requests where one can make requests of multiple varied endpoints from the REST API in one HTTP request.


Open source projects are furthering software practices based on RESTful APIs. SmartBear Software launched an open source project under the governance of the Linux Foundation called the Open API Initiative (OAI) to establish standards and guidance for whole REST APIs are defined  (Katayama et al., 2010). The major goal of OAI is to describe a standard, language-agnostic interface to REST APIs that enables computers and users to discover and comprehend the abilities of the service without access to source code, documentation, or through network traffic check-up.

Future of REST APIs

RESTful APIs are regarded as superior to service-oriented architectures and cloud computing, and microservices are working to make RESTful API design the rule in the future. Daniel Bachhuber sees the REST API going further, his says:

I believe WordPress to be the embodied of core philosophies, then a particular manifestation of software: ownership over personal data, design for users, commitment to backward compatibility, and so on. The WP REST API is the foundational component of WordPress being embedded within 100% of the web” (Schiola, 2016).

The loT developers need REST without needless bloat, both HTTP and JSON. For JSON the future of loT is austere, and the REST model is a strong fit for loT. REST holds the future, since it allows building infrastructure for organizations with fewer worries about longer-term hitching to a particular client-side track, the server will always live longer than the client (Lanthaler & Gütl, 2012). Another key idea in this REST APIs architectural philosophy is that the server supports caching and is stateless.




Armbrust, M., Fox, A., Griffith, R., Joseph, A. D., Katz, R., Konwinski, A., … & Zaharia, M. (2010). A view of cloud computing. Communications of the ACM53(4), 50-58.

Buyya, R., Yeo, C. S., & Venugopal, S. (2008, September). Market-oriented cloud computing: Vision, hype, and reality for delivering it services as computing utilities. Proceedings of 10th IEEE International Conference High Performance Computing and Communications, (pp. 5-13). Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE CS Press.

Katayama, T., Nakao, M., & Takagi, T. (2010). TogoWS: integrated SOAP and REST APIs for interoperable bioinformatics Web services. Nucleic Acids Research38(suppl 2), W706-W711.

Lane, K. (2012). History of APIs. API Evangelist. Retrieved from: http://apievangelist.com/2012/12/20/history-of-apis/

Lanthaler, M., & Gütl, C. (2012, April). On using JSON-LD to create evolvable RESTful services. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on RESTful Design (pp. 25-32). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: ACM Press.

Lozano, D., Galindo, L. A., & García, L. (2008, September). WIMS 2.0: Converging IMS and Web 2.0. designing REST APIs for the exposure of session-based IMS capabilities. In The Second International Conference on Next Generation Mobile Applications, Services, and Technologies, (pp. 18-24).

Mohamed, A. (2009). A history of cloud computing. Computer Weekly27. Retrieved from: http://www.computerweekly.com/feature/A-history-of-cloud-computing.

Schiola, E. (2016, January 20). The future of REST API: An interview with Daniel Bachhuber. Torque. Retrieved from: http://torquemag.io/2016/01/future-rest-api-interview-daniel-bachhuber/

WordPress. (2011). WordPress.org. Retrieved from: https://wordpress.org/

Yates, A., Beal, K., Keenan, S., McLaren, W., Pignatelli, M., Ritchie, G. R., … & Flicek, P. (2014). The Ensembl REST API: ensembl data for any language. Bioinformatics, 613.